A port hand buoy is coloured green, displays identification letter(s) and odd number(s) and. Lights on Cardinal Marks The lights of all cardinal marks are white in colour. Notice the “clockwise” resemblance of the lightphase characteristics. The following are the buoy colours used in the Canadian Buoyage System: The shape of an unlighted buoy indicates the position of the buoy with respect to the channel and thus the side on which the buoy should be passed: The use of topmarks as an additional means of daytime buoy identification is at present, restricted to lateral, cardinal, and isolated danger buoys in ice free conditions. An information buoy is coloured white and has an orange, open faced square symbol on two opposite sides and two orange horizontal bands, one above and one below the square symbols. The long flash in the South Cardinal character ensures that there is no confusion between the 6 flashes per group of this buoy and the 9 flashes per group of the West Cardinal. Hazard), orange retroreflective material may be added to enhance visibility of the symbol. A starboard hand buoy is coloured red, displays identification letter(s) and even number(s) and. A fairway buoy indicates safe water. In cases where a special buoy is equipped with retroreflective material for use with number or letter plates/backgrounds, the colour of that material will be yellow. Named after the cardinal parts of the compass, North, East, South, and West, cardinal marks indicate the position of a danger and the direction of the safe side on which to pass it. A north cardinal buoy is coloured black and yellow in approximately equal areas above the waterline, the top half of the buoy being black and the lower half being yellow. These can be used to relay a host of information or provide warnings of impending danger. it is usually moored directly on or above the danger, it is used to mark a large rock, shoal or sunken ship, overhead or underwater power line hazard signs. white light flashing three times every 10-15 seconds. A hazard buoy marks random hazards such as rocks, shoals or turbulent waters located outside the main channel. A white light in which identical flashes are repeated at the rate of 60 flashes per minute (1 flash every second). A Cardinal Mark is named after the quadrant in which it is placed. Special buoys are used to convey specific information to the mariner. The letters at the base of the chart are the colours from top to bottom. Combinations of yellow and black colours of approximately equal area above the waterline. Therefore a vessel should pass to the west of a west cardinal mark, or to the east of a east cardinal mark and so on. white swimming and diving buoys) retroreflective material will be yellow. A north cardinal buoy is located so that the safest water exists to the north of it. The shapes of special buoys have no significance and a variety of shapes may be used in practice. if it carries a topmark, the topmark is two black cones, one above the other, pointing downward. With the exception of ODAS buoys, these lights will be flashing (Fl)4s, meaning that they will flash regularly at intervals of 4 seconds. pass north of a North Mark). A port hand buoy marks the port (left) side of a channel or the location of a danger which must be kept on the vessel’s port (left) side when proceeding in the upstream direction. A vessel engaged in diving must display a blue and white flag (International Code A Flag, see left). 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